Techniques in Underground Mining - ILO Encyclopaedia
Methods for Underground Mining. The choice of mining method is influenced by the shape and size of the ore deposit, the value of the contained minerals, the composition, stability and strength of the rock mass and the demands for production output and safe working conditions (which sometimes are …
Drop raising in underground mines - SlideShare
Jun 16, 2018· DROP RAISING - INTRODUCTION Special method of charging of Explosives and blasting is done in stages from bottom level for excavation in slices. The charging and blasting of the holes is based on Vertical Crater Retreat (VCR) method. The raise is driven either vertically or with steeply inclined dip. Mucking of blasted material done from lower level.
Underground Mining Transportation & Haulage Systems
Sep 03, 2020· The waste is blasted or caved into a raise leading to an underground grizzly chamber 27 feet above the 300-foot adit level. From the grizzly it drops onto an apron feeder 42 inches wide by 11 feet long, which feeds it onto the conveyor belt at the rate of about 350 tons per hour, although 1,000 tons per hour can be handled without difficulty.
Raising methods in metal Mines - copper mining India (1980
DROP RAISING IN MINING (VCR) METHOD The method of drop raising is an improvement over the method of raising through longholing, described earlier. In India at the Copper Mines of Khetri Copper
Mines Visit – Mining and Blasting
Note: Following mines are also known to be engaged in the production of iron ore by underground method of mining: a. Kriyy Rog underground iron ore mine (MSKR) Ukraine. b. Underground iron ore mine, Minnesota, ia ***** De Beer’s Finsch Diamond Underground Mine, South Africa. The Finsch diamond mine, located near Lime Acres, 160km
List of Technical Papers – Mining and Blasting
* Mining_Methods_UnderGround_Mining * Coal in China Resources_Uses_and_Advanced_Coal_Technologies * Positioning_the_Indian_Coal_Power_Sector_for_Carbon_Mitigation * Mine Waste Issues in the United States * Concept of Blastability – An Update * Artificial Neural Network Method of Rock Mass …
Drop Raising in Mining (VCR) Method - copper mining India
Drop Raising in Mining (VCR) Methods of Stopes (Extraction of Ore). Hindustan Copper Limited has addressed the complex ‘raising’ operation in mining and developed and implemented Drop Raising
Under Ground Mechanized Mining Methods: Drop Raising in
Mar 07, 2012· Under ground mechanized mining methods. Drop Raising in Mining (VCR) Methods of Stopes (Extraction of Ore). Hindustan Copper Limited has addressed the complex ‘raising’ operation in mining and developed and implemented Drop Raising techniques at 80 meters intervals which improved safety and led to faster and higher productivity.
Underground Mining Methods and Equipment
1. Underground Mining Methods 1.1. Classification of Underground Mining Methods Mineral production in which all extracting operations are conducted beneath the ground surface is termed underground mining. Underground mining methods are usually employed when the depth of the deposit and/or the waste to ore ratio (stripping ratio) are too great
SubLevel Stoping - Introduction to Sublevel Stoping - OneMine
The slot can be started at a slot raise driven by conventional raising methods, raise boring, drop raising (predrilling and blasting a raise from the top, using small diameter-less than 200-mm (7%-in.)-holes for relief), or crater blasting (similar to drop raising, but without relief holes).
Underground Mining Techniques and Risks Geology for
Apr 22, 2021· how easily will the ore break. Standard mining techniques include: cut and fill or drift and fill; ore is mined and the stope filled with tailings, raising the level of the mining shrinkage stoping – similar to cut and fill except the ore is blasted and left in …
GUIDELINES FOR THE INTEGRATED PLANNING AND …
underground coal mining operations are, as far as reasonably practicable, designed, constructed and equipped to provide conditions for safe operation and a healthy and propose possible methods whereby the significant risks can be eliminated, controlled at source, minimised or managed through effective monitoring programmes
Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method
Aug 01, 2015· The raise is a type of excavation that can be constructed by the raise boring method. Raise boring is very important in the mining industry, and it is also applied to other underground engineering, such as water conduits, air shafts, elevator hoistways and cable shafts in hydropower stations and pumped-storage power stations, ventilation shafts
Types of Underground Mining Method Comparison
C, Fig. 2, is a wide raise or raise stope, which is one method of opening an overhand stope, and E is a drift stope, which is a term used in the Lake Superior copper mines and means a wide and high drift as a start for the overhand stoping. Longitudinal Back, Flat-Back Mining Method Long-Wall StopingmMining Method
Underground Mining Techniques and Risks Geology for
Apr 22, 2021· Standard mining techniques include: cut and fill or drift and fill; ore is mined and the stope filled with tailings, raising the level of the mining; shrinkage stoping – similar to cut and fill except the ore is blasted and left in place and used as a mining platform.
Underground Mining Transportation Systems
Underground mines have changed their operation systems in accordance with the evolution of equipment, the system and method of mining. Transport is also of critical importance in underground mines as is the mining operation itself. The underground transport system of ores, materials, equipment and persons has been developed from
MECHANISED MINE DEVELOPMENT UTILISING ROCK …
CURRENT TECHNIQUES FLAT DIPPING TO STEEP DIPPING TUNNELLING AND DEVELOPMENT 2.1 Drill and blast mechanised tunnelling and development 2.1.1 Drop raising Drop raising, also known as “longhole raise blasting” or “upsidedown raising”, is an excavation which is completely pre-drilled over its full length, then charged from the top, or bottom, and finally blasted from the bottom in practical …
Drop Raising In Underground Mines: Methods For Underground
Drop Raising in Underground Mines: Methods for Underground Mining Original Article. Ramlakhan Meena*, in Journal of Advances and Scholarly Researches in Allied Education Multidisciplinary Academic Research
(PDF) Study on the raising technique using one blast based
Besides VCR drop-raising, some other raising techniques have also. improved the raising safety and productivity. For example, it was re- was done using underground mining methods since the
Ore Pass - Mining Fundamentals
May 24, 2014· Ore passes are used to drop mined ores into loading points or underground bins. The ores can be hoisted to the surface from the loading points. Unloading of ores from the passes can be carried out using underflow or side discharge chutes.
Appendix E: Coal Mining and Processing Methods Coal
The room-and-pillar method accounts for 50 percent of the underground production in the United States, and continuous mining makes up more than 90 percent of this production. In both conventional and continuous methods, coal is loaded onto coal transport vehicles and then dumped onto a panel-belt conveyor for transport out of the mine.
Mining operations and mobile equipment selection audit …
mining operations and equipment selection (Part 2), surface and underground operations with site deliveries (Part 3), and management of mobile equipment maintenance (Part 4). This document (Part 2) covers mining operations and equipment selection. This part has three elements with a total of 66 individual standards.
Tailingsfo Backfill of Tailings to Underground Workings
The fill is either dropped down a raise, or tipped into an open stope by a Load Haul Dump (LHD) or dump trucks. Dry rock fill is most suited for the cut and fill mining method. This site is sponsored by Tailpro Consulting, a specialist tailings testing laboratory and engineering consultant
Rockpasses: a guide to excavation methodology
˜ Invert drop raising is totally applicable due to set-up speed and speed of drilling, enabling this length to be excavated at competitive cost and with minimum disruption to raising process. Medium Length Passes (15–45 m) ˜ Conventional drop raising and invert drop raising are the most effective methods, the invert process being
Geotechnical considerations in underground mines
Geotechnical Considerations in Underground Mining/Department of Industry and Resources Guideline Document No.: ZME723QT 1.0 INTRODUCTION The potentially hazardous nature of underground mining requires the application of sound geotechnical engineering practice to determine the ground conditions, the ground support and reinforcement requirements, as well as the size, shape and …
Techniques of inverse drop raise blasting and slot drilling
The same drill drift can be used for the drilling of both down holes and up holes. In the case of down holes, the initial opening of the stope (drop raise) is not as much a problem as for the inverse drop raise for mining with up holes. This is because, with a drop raise, a lot of space is available at the toe for the blasted rock to expand.
Underground Mine Development - MINING.COM
Dec 01, 2011· As stated, vertical excavation is key to the rapid development of underground mine workings. The latest generation of Atlas Copco Robbins raiseborer is …
Paper: Underground mining at Ekati and Diavik diamond mines
Three principal underground mining methods: open benching, sublevel caving and incline cave mining were implemented at the Ekati mine. Diavik Diamond Mine started open pit production in 2003. By 2005, underground development had commenced with plans to mine the A154 and A418 pipes using backfill methods.
Raise (mining) - Wikipedia
In underground mining, a raise refers to a vertical or inclined excavation that leads from one level, or drift, to another. A raise may also extend to surface. There are four excavation methods for raises: Conventional or open raise
Ore pass practice in Canadian mines - SAIMM
Excavation method Ore passes are developed using either mechanical (raise borer) or drill and blast techniques (Alimak, conventional raising and drop raising). In Quebec mines, Alimak raising was used in 63% of driven ore passes while only 3% were raise bored. Conventional and drop raises represent 29% and 5% of the sections, respectively. The
Different Raising Techniques in mining
Mar 14, 2018· Different Raising Techniques in mining 1. DIFFERENT RAISING TECHNIQUES 2. Definition vertical or steeply-inclined opening that connects different levels in mine. ladder way access to stopes, ore pass or airway in mine’s ventilation system. Raising methods vary from simple manual drill and blast to mechanical rock excavation with raise boring machines (RBMs).
Raise bored slot raises: A modern mining technique
level stoping mining method. The average stope height is 25 meters but can be as high as 40 meters. The original long-hole open stoping method required 21 drill holes for opening a drop raise in each stope, using the same conventional long-hole rigs as that were used for drilling
Ore and waste passes - QueensMineDesignWiki
Ore passes are traditionally developed using one of 2 methods. First is mechanical development and typically involves using a raise borer. The second is using drill and blast methods. These could include Alimak, conventional raising and drop raising.
Mining - Underground mining Britannica
Mining - Mining - Underground mining: When any ore body lies a considerable distance below the surface, the amount of waste that has to be removed in order to uncover the ore through surface mining becomes prohibitive, and underground techniques must be considered. Counting against underground mining are the costs, which, for each ton of material mined, are much higher underground than on …
Here are the Types of Underground Mining and Their
This method is called underground mining, whose types are explained below. Room and Pillar Mining. In this method, mining is carried out in an ore deposit, leaving behind some of the ore in the form of columns to support the roof and prevent it from collapsing. Thus, it results in the formation of spaces called ‘rooms’, where the ore is
Mining Funda: Cut and Fill Stoping
Cut and fill stoping is a method of underground mining used in vertical stopes and in mining high-grade irregular ore bodies. The rock mass surrounding the ore deposit is also usually weak unable to support loads over an extended stoping height. As the name of the method implies, successive cutting of the ore into horizontal slices is carried
Underground Mine Development - MINING.COM
Dec 01, 2011· The planned underground expansions to existing mines, as well as major new underground operations being looked at, means that achieving faster and more efficient development underground is as much
Description of mining methods (step by step)
The drop raise consists in 19 holes. The long-hole drilling is completed for the stope. The drop raise is blasted in a single-shot and mucked out. The rest of the stope is blasted, 1814 to 2722 tons (2000 to 3000 short tons) at the time.
Tutorials/Mining – Official Minecraft Wiki
Apr 23, 2021· In the world of Minecraft, mining is essential to a player's progress. However, it can be dangerous and time-consuming if not done well. Below are some tips provided by the community for performing this underground work. 1 Mining layers 2 Preparing to mine 3 Cave mining 3.1 Mineshafts 3.2 Caves under sand 3.3 Cave mining checklist 4 Shaft Mining 4.1 Simple Mine Shaft 4.2 …
Drop Raising Method Mining Drilling
INTRODUCTION This is a method of making a raise connection between two adjacent levels,nearly 60 m apart,by drilling large dia holes(150-165mm),from upper level to lower level and blasting them in stages. The raise is usually vertical but may also be steeply inclined. In India this method is used at the Copper Mines of Khetri Copper Complex (KCC).
Underground Mining Techniques and Risks Geology for
Apr 22, 2021· how easily will the ore break. Standard mining techniques include: cut and fill or drift and fill; ore is mined and the stope filled with tailings, raising the level of the mining shrinkage stoping – similar to cut and fill except the ore is blasted and left in place and used as a mining platform.
(PDF) Underground mining Methods - ResearchGate
Longwall mining is a highly mechaniz ed underground mining sys tem for mining coal. It set of longwall mining equipment consists of a coal shear er mounted on convey or operating
Unit 16 Mine Development - Mining and Blasting
On the surface of an underground mine, a collar is required for a shaft or raise entry, while a portal refers to the entrance for an adit, decline, or ramp. Collar Collars are also required for ventilation shafts, service shafts, and for all raises that reach surface. Constructing collars in a …